Monday, June 8, 2020
Math Assignment Done by Professionals According to Your Requirements! Math Assignment Done by Professionals According to Your Requirements! If you are a math student and math assignments have caused you a lot of sleepless nights, you have probably considered other options than writing them yourself. Of course, good and hard-working students like you prefer to handle all the tasks themselves. But sometimes you may find yourself in a complicated situation, when either the workload is too big and you simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the energy to complete the task; or the task is too difficult for you to understand, but you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to risk getting bad notes; or the deadline is too soon, and you are afraid not to make it on time. So what do you do in cases like these? The right question is really simple: you get some online help with finance assignment right here at.com and let our professional writing team relieve you from the academic pressure! To Get Online Help with Math or to Cope with It on Your Own? There is one simple truth you have to realize: there are no easy math assignments. The difficulty lies in the fact that you not only have to solve a problem, but also describe all the steps. And being good with numbers doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean that you are a good writer as well. But on the other hand, there are so many complex and interesting topics to elaborate on: Natural numbers Rational numbers Complex Numbers Integers Number theory Abstract algebra Order theory Geometry Algebraic geometry Trigonometry Differential geometry Topology Fractal geometry Calculus Vector calculus Differential equations Dynamical systems Chaos theory Although, while some of them are quite easy to cope with, the others may cost you some precious hours. Formulas, laws and rules there is so much you have to learn by heart and, moreover, to fully understand! This is really difficult. So, if you feel stuck and confused about how to deal with this or another topic, or how to solve this or another problem, do not hesitate and get your math assignment help as soon as possible! Get Your Math Assignments Online and Enjoy Success! Even the best of us are having some hard times working on a math assignment, so you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be ashamed of asking for math assignment writing help. So donÃ¢â¬â¢t waste your time, place your order at.com and let our team of experienced writers do the job for you. The math assignment help you will get is your guaranteed way to academic success! We provide services of unique quality, our team is reliable and trustworthy. We employ well-educated English speakers, who will gladly help you with all of your school troubles. We want you to be happy with your grades and we do our best to achieve this goal. Order your math assignment now and forget your worries! Let the professional writers of.com help you become the successful person you always wanted to be!
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Sexuality at Different Life Stages Kimberly Hamsher PSY/265 April 13, 2014 Kimberly Hima Sexuality at Different Life Stages In the case of Ashley, I would assume her therapist would point out all the options she has before deciding if she wants to pursue a sexual relationship with her boyfriend. She should explain the variety of emotions an adolescent girl might feel when a boy or young man shows an interest in her. She should let her know that the word love can sometimes be displaced and confused with feelings such as lust, puppy love or even infatuation. She should let her know that for her young age, those are normal feelings and though they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be taken lightly, they should also not be taken advantage of by someone whoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I think it scares him that he might disappoint Mindy because heÃ¢â¬â¢s not a spry as he used to be. Their therapist should point out that while physical and psychological changes occur as they get older, sexual activity can be just as fulfilling if they understand what those changes are. She should let them know that as women get older, they produce less estrogen, vaginal walls lose elasticity, the vagina shrinks, vaginal lubrication decreases after menopause, all of which can make penile entry more painful. However, there are aids to help with these such as estrogen replacement therapy and vaginal lubricants such as KY jelly, which would diminish pain and increase sexual pleasure for both of them. She should point out to Wayne that as men get older, their testosterone levels are lower making it take longer to achieve an erection, and it may take longer to reach orgasm. She should tell them both that these things are a normal part of aging along with the obvious, wrinkles, turning grey and maybe not being as attractive to each other as they used to be, but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean their sexual activity has to cease or be less meaningful. They could try different approaches such as longer foreplay, sexual aids, etc. If they love each other and understand whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on with them selves physically then they, including Wayne, could be very satisfied with the outcome. In BobÃ¢â¬â¢s case, the therapist can offer to talkShow MoreRelatedSexuality at Different Life Stages986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSexuality at Different Life Stages The therapistÃ¢â¬â¢s response to Anna Anna you have been having some issues lately regarding having a boyfriend and your mother is concerned that you are not ready for a relationship with an older boy. At this point you think that what you are feeling for your boyfriend is love, but true love is when your partner can understand what you are going through and help you to go through it rather than force you to make a decision now. Maybe you are feeling that if youRead MoreSexuality at Different Life Stages Essay1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbehaviors even prior to birth. Throughout an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life they will experience different stages of sexuality. This paper will address concerns, feelings, and changes that Anna, Tom and Susan, and Bill are experiencing during their specific life stage as well as some coaching ideas and recommendations to aid them through the roadblocks in his or her way so they each can continue to move through the life stages of sexuality. Adolescence Stage Anna is an adolescent girl who has a boyfriendRead MoreSexuality Is An Omnipresent Factor That Affects Everyone809 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSexuality is an omnipresent factor that affects everyone individually in society today. It is a term that can be labeled as different things or meanings. Sexuality is a topic that is understood by all, yet talked by few. Sexuality can be seen as ones capacity for sexual feelings, and their sexual orientation or preference. It is a defining characteristic that is attributed to everyone, and has the power to set aside one from another. When looking at sexuality it is important to understand what itRead MoreFreud s Theory Of Sexuality956 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOne of His most significant outlooks and study was in the sexology field. Sexology had already been constituted as a separate form of enquiry some time before the appearance of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s most important contribution, The three essays on the theory of sexuality (1905) and many of the term s that we tend to identify with Freud, such as libido, component instincts, erotogenic zones, catharsis, autoerotism and narcissism were already in circulation. (Akroterion. 58, 79-96, Dec. 2013) Some have argued that FreudRead MoreGender and Human Sexuality1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGender and human sexuality has major importance in lives. This can determine whether a person is healthy or not; not only physically but mentally as well. Also, having a certain gender can change the way feelings are obtain their own character. It is about finding yourself within the gender given and personal human sexuality. Gender can determine actions made by either a male or female called it gender norms. The human sexuality could be defined as thoughts, fantasies, morals, relationship, and attitudesRead MoreThe Struggles And Needs Elderly Lgbt Individuals Face And Its Effect On Their Aging Process1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdo they face discrimination due to their sexuality, but also due to their ag e and/or gender. The intersectionality of sexuality, age, and/or gender can cause many physical, mental, and emotional health issues which require social work intervention. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the struggles and needs elderly LGBT individuals face and its effect on their aging process. This can be achieved by applying theoretical frameworks such as EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Stages of Development, Intersectionality, andRead MoreAlize Johnson. Mr. Sidney. British Literature . March 27,1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlize Johnson Mr. Sidney British Literature March 27, 2017 Teen Sexuality Ã¢â¬Å"How sexuality, love,and autonomy are perceived and negotiated in parent-child relationships and among teenagers depends on the cultural templates people have availableÃ¢â¬ -Amy Schale, 2010 The controversy over teen sexuality in America seems to be one of the top ranked topics that floods the internet, talk shows, and radio stations. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about the latest teen pregnancy shows, child pornographyRead MoreThe Sexuality of Adolescent Americans in Juno1555 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Sexuality of Adolescent Americans: Juno Abstract Sexuality and sex in America is a complicated subject in that there is little consensus on the topic of sex in, and the American media sends many mixed messages regarding sex and sexuality to everyone, not just to adolescents. Americans are aware of sex primarily through advertising (print media, commercials, etc.) as sex is used to sell anything and everything. The media also bombards Americans with sexuality and sex on television and inRead MoreThe Theory Of Sexuality By Sigmund Freud1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestopics evoke so much intrigue and bewilderment, discussion and silence as the concept of sexuality. It has simultaneously been the focus of scientific experimentation and theoretical debate since the emergence of the modern world. Traditional views designate sexuality as purposeful, which is to say that our sexual instinct compels us toward reproduction and the preservation of life. This parallels human sexuality to that of animals, an instinct that is genetically programmed into us for the purposeRead MoreGoffman And Michel Foucault s Theory Of Society And The Unspoken Rule Of Conduct Of Our Everyday Interactions1324 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnorm has been broken. Sociologist Erving Goffman and Michel Foucault were concerned with the characteristics that make up the structure of society and the importance of the production of social order. Both theorists have used different methods to study the effect of social life in society and the unspoken rule of conduct of our everyday interactions. In this paper I will compare and contrast their influences, focusing on how social order is produced to help us understand the importance of human interaction
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Problem of Global Warming Imagine you are placed into the future. The year is 2100. You begin to live in this new world. You hear about huge storms over much of the USA that cause severe damage and flooding. San Francisco, New York City, New Orleans, Seattle, and Miami all experience major flooding from the ocean level having risen so high. Thousands and thousands of people perish each summer across the USA aloneÃ¢â¬âhundreds die in Chicago as the temperature soars to 100 for 2 weeks straight. No, this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t total fantasy. These events all could occur. All of them could result from one thingÃ¢â¬âglobal warming. Global warming is a huge problem with many consequences that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize could occur. If we work together,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Because more carbon dioxide is being put into the air, there is more absorption by the atmosphere and more reflection back to the surface, so the surface is getting warmer. Now, what actions are resulting in the expansion of the greenhouse effect? Two main causes are burning fossil fuels and driving our cars. According to a NASA earth observatory web page, Ã¢â¬Å"fossil fuel burning (coal, oil and gas) releases about 6 billion metric tons per year.Ã¢â¬ On the EPA web site, it is stated that most of the emissions of greenhouse gases, Ã¢â¬Å"about 82%, are from burning fossil fuels to generate electricity and power our cars.Ã¢â¬ As I said before, driving our cars also is a large cause. For example, Ecobridge states that Ã¢â¬Å"Twenty percent of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions comes from the burning of gasoline in internal-combustion engines of cars and light trucks.Ã¢â¬ So a fair amount of the emissions is from driving your car. Deforestation, the cutting and burning of a forest, also increases the amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. A NASA page says that Ã¢â¬Å"when a forest is cut and burned to establish cropland and pastures, the carbon that was stored in the tree trunks (wood is about 50% carbon) joins with oxygen and is released into the atmosphere as CO2. CO2, is, ofShow MoreRelatedGlobal Warming Is A Problem Essay1527 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAbstract Global warming is a dilemma; it is a debatable issue between a fact and a theory, between approval and disapproval and between having advantages and disadvantages. Endless questions that have indefinite answers arise to a manÃ¢â¬â¢s mind when just tackling the idea of the global warming. Many people do not take in consideration the environmental issues, their main interests lie behind thinking about their personal lives and needs. Only few who think about the environment theyÃ¢â¬Ëre living in. IsRead MoreThe Problem Of Global Warming1131 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOne of the biggest problems facing in today s world is global warming. It is affecting the earth from climate changes, storms becoming worse over time creating damage to peoples homes, species dying because they canÃ¢â¬â¢t adapt rapidly to the changes, animal s population is shrinking and new diseases being created. Thankfully through time we have developed new technology to reduce the effect of global warming. However since we have dealt with global warming for so long for many years, we have doubleRead MoreThe Problem Of Global Warming1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhat is a Social Problem? A social issue is defined as an area of conflict in a social setting that influences different people and is often out of reach of the control of an individual or local geographical authority (Weart 73). Some social problems, however, are not perceived universally as such, resulting in a difference in opinion between different groups. Other social issues are universally recognized as justifiable and, therefore, are addressed by everyone. Global warming is a social issueRead MoreGlobal Warming Is A Problem1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat is global warming? Global warming is the polar bears and penguins fighting for their lives because their home is melting. Global warming is seventy-degree weather in the middle of February. Global warming is the rapid increase in tropical storms. Global warming is the California drought. Global warming is the harmful wildfires occurring in our forests (NRDC). Many people, mostly politicians, believe that global warming is a problem that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. Global warming is a real issue that we cannotRead MoreThe Problem Of Global Warming1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesknow is inhabitable is now being destroyed by man. As humanity has revolutionized we have created many problems along the way. The main problem we are facing right now is called global warming. We have damaged many ecosystems trying to better ourselves, and we have not yet once thought about the damage we are inflicting on our mother earth. We are already beginning to see the effects of global warming. It will make little changes that will have a huge impact, and devastate many ecosystems and everythingRead MoreThe Problem Of Global Warming1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGlobal Warming in the United Stated Global warming is no longer just a prediction it is actually happening. It is undisputed that the average temperature at the surface of Earth has increased over the past century by 1 degree Fahrenheit, with both the air and the oceans warming. Since 1880, when people in many locations first began to keep temperature records, the 25 warmest years have all occurred within the last 28 years. The problem is that if we keep on hurting our own environment and ecosystemsRead MoreThe Problem Of Global Warming1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstruggle such as the Syrian war. One reason why Syrians are engaged in a war is that they are experiencing extreme heat and drought which causes them to be more rebellious and aggressive. The underlying cause of these trouble can be due to global warming. Global warming occurs when carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases trap heat in EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere because some of the sunÃ¢â¬â¢s ray cannot escape. It is a worldwide phenomenon that impacts each a nd every one of us because it cause irregular climate patternsRead MoreThe Problem Of Global Warming1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe story in the movie The Age of Stupid, in which a man lives in the devastated future world of 2055. The man looks back to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s date and asks himself why we did not stop the climate change when we had the chance. However, today global warming is out of control, global temperatures are steadily rising. Ã¢â¬Å"The primary cause, a consensus of scientists has said, is the rising emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methaneÃ¢â¬ (Stone, 2013). The CO2 stays in the atmosphere for 50 to 100 yearsRead MoreGlobal Warming Is A Problem1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthis reason is global warming. Global warming is a problem that some people choose to ignore. They claim it does not exist. Global warming is real. It is time for people to stop ignoring it and start searching for a solution. Although many people do not believe in global warming, blaming the climate change on the sun, global warming is a serious danger to the Earth because it could have serious effects on the plant and animal populations. To fully grasp the effects of global warming, one must firstRead MoreGlobal Warming Is A Global Problem1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe reason why, I decided to focus on global warming is because it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just affect one person it affects everyone as a national crisis. Numerous individuals donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe in global warming, but to scientist this is a big dilemma. In the article, Ã¢â¬Å"closer looks at climate change, itÃ¢â¬â¢s specified that these issues are not new, they have been around foreverÃ¢â¬ (Schmidt, 2010). Ã¢â¬Å"In the article the real case against activist global warming, has gotten the response of the president of the United StatesÃ¢â¬
Question: Disuses About The Compensation In Case Of Breach Of Contract? Answer: Introducation The ACL is a body of laws that was created in 2010 to protect business traders and consumer needs. Basically, it was started by the Australian government in joint with the ACCC, ASIC and the State and Territory consumer protection agencies. a) From the ACL information that was published on 19th December 2014, the following law sections were breached (https://www.accc.gov.au/): Prohibition of an individual in trade or in commerce from engaging in misleading or in deceptive conduct, e.g. in marketing or advertisements (Dina et al, 2014). Prohibition against making false or misleading representations anywhere about the consumers rights, e.g. consumer refunds Prohibition against false or misleading information about the products or services the trading individual or group does, whether its the prices, quality, quantity etc. (https://www.accc.gov.au/about-us/australian-competition-consumer-commission/legislation). Prohibition of unreasonable changes in the contracts made between the consumers and the trading individual or group. For instance, changing the terms and conditions of the contract without notifying the consumers. b) The ACC took action against ACL simply because the organization had broken the laws that it was supposed to uphold. Being an organization that is responsible for taking care of consumers under the ACCs rules and regulations, the ACL failed to follow those laws and now had to be checked out. ACL did not uphold the laws relating to consumer rights, product/service they offered and the terms and conditions guidelines. The ACL failed to follow the guidelines in the ACC laws that dealt with consumer transactions for goods and services, the law that banned specific unfair practices in trade and commerce among other things. c) The ACC was trying to uphold the following consumer protections: Protection from being misled and deceived by ACL, e.g. false product/service prices, false refund promises. Protection from being mistreated and ignored, e.g. changing the terms and conditions agreed in a contract between ACL and the consumer. ACC and ACL undertaking Summary ACL promised never to engage in unfair practices during its trading operations, e.g. false and misleading consumers about product prices and characteristics and failing to follow the laws that governed consumers rights. ACL promised to adhere to the laws that governed their trading operations and transactions with their customers. For instance, follow the rule that governs voucher purchasers in relation to refunds being given. Communicate effectively and efficiently to their loyal consumers or rather subscribers regarding updates or possible changes to be made, that are related to its terms and conditions, communication should be done through emails as early as possible. Develop and implement an internal system that will help it to identify possible risks as early as possible and also reduce the risk of breaching the ACC laws. Provide a display of all the costs on a product or service including all mandatory additional charges if any. However, ACL should follow the rule and regulation on the exception of the delivery fee and the minimum charge at the time of publication when need be. ACL should use the comparison pricing statement that are clear, simple and easily understood when it comes to comparison of the savings to be received. Damages to the principles property This damage can includes things like demolishing and defects after construction. This damage can be mitigated by insuring all the property owned by the principal. For instance, insurance against theft, fire, invasions and other occurrences that may cause property loss (Issa, 2015). Damage to the Work under the Contract (WUC) This damage refers to all the activities and responsibilities being carried out during the construction. These includes the decisions being made and the consequences or effects caused by those decisions. This kind of damage can be mitigated by insuring the WUC as well as by seeking legal advice before entering into the contract. Damage to persons i.e. the contractor The contractor is the person in charge of the contract or rather the person supervising the contract. This damage can be reduced by insuring the contractor (e.g. taking up life assurance against upon death or injury) and insuring that there is legal counsel before the contractor enter the contract. Damage to the principal This is the person who funds the contract or basically the owner of the contract. Damage to the contractor can be mitigated through insuring themselves or their property e.g. life assurance or property against loss, fire, theft etc. Ways of Terminating a Contract Termination by insolvency. When one party informs the other concerning the terminations e.g. when the party funding the contract cannot fund any more. It is realistic to say that no contract can continue without having funding. Therefore, when the funding is cut off, a contract can be terminated without breaching the contracts terms (Al-Tawil, 2013). Termination for convenience. This is when the principal decides to terminate the contract when he/she deems best for them. Also, the contractor can be instructed by the principal to terminate the contract at whatever time he/she thinks is convenient for them. If the time period for the contract has reached. Every contract has a time schedule that is set for it to be completed (Dief et al, 2016). Therefore, when that time reaches, the contract is deemed to end automatically. Termination by frustration. This is when the parties realize that the contract has no hope of completion or success and therefore they end up terminating it. Clauses Dealing with Contract Termination Any party can terminate the contract when the contract period is reached. The principal should terminate the contract in case they realize that no funding is available Any party can terminate the contract if they realize that it has no hope for success or completion. The principal can terminate the contract whenever they feel like, but should ensure all payment is made to the contractor. Steps to resolve a dispute A dispute between the principal and the contractor should be resolved within a period of 28 days. Steps to follow (Mohamed et al, 2014 Chaphalkar and Patil, 2012): Purpose Tenure of the board Disclose the statement Selection process Provision of contract copy by the contractor and principal Conduct meetings and visits Review disputes Conduct deliberations Recommend for the resolution Acceptance or rejection of the dispute Clarification and reconsideration if resolution is not reached Admissibility Resolution fee payment References https://www.accc.gov.au/ https://www.accc.gov.au/about-us/australian-competition-consumer-commission/legislation Al-Tawil, T., 2013. Damages for the Breach of Contract: Compensation, Cost of Cure and Vindication.Adel. L. Rev.,34, p.351. Chaphalkar, N.B. and Patil, S.K., 2012. Decision support system for dispute resolution in construction contracts.KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering,16(4), pp.499-504. Dief, M.I.A., Almedalah, K.Y. and Elwan, A.S., 2016. Practical Guide for termination of construction projects: Hands on application in FIDIC and NEC3 Contracts. Dina, M, Dover, Y and Chevalier, J. 2014. Promotional Reviews: An Empirical Investigation of Online Review Manipulation. American Economic Review, 104(8): 2421-55 Issa, M.R., 2015. Damages and Compensation in Case of Breach of Contract.International Journal of Social Science Research,3(1), pp.190-201. Mohamed, H.H., Ibrahim, A.H. and Soliman, A.A., 2014. Reducing construction disputes through effective claims management.American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture,2(6), pp.186-196.
Monday, April 20, 2020
Plato`S The Republic Socrates' ideal city is described through Plato in his work The Republic, some questions pondered through the text could be; How is this an ideal city formed, and is justice in the city relative to that of the human soul? I believe Socrates found the true meaning of justice in the larger atmosphere of the city and applied that concept to the human soul. Socrates describes his idea of an ideal city as one that has all the necessary parts to function and to show that justice is truly the harmony between the three stages of the city and soul in the human body. Plato introduces the idea of the happiness. Socrates says, in establishing our city, we arent aiming to make any one group outstanding happy but to make the whole city so, as far as possible (Plato 420b). I agree that in order to examine one thing that is difficult to comprehend, it is wise to look on a larger scale. In this case, Socrates had to examine the difference of a whole city and other concepts of cities in order to determine justice in the world and inner soul. In order to develop the perfect city Socrates had to develop the other ideas that contribute to the ideal city, the City of Need, and the City of Luxury in order to develop the Perfect City. I believe Socrates in-depth discovery process for the perfect city is a great philosophical look into the idea of justice. Socrates brought up a subject many men at that time would never have thought about and Plato believed that the idea of justice was worthy of writing a literary work to pass his philosophy on to future generations. Since the crucial elements of justice may be easier to observe on the larger scale like a city than on one individual. The focus for Socrates is a perfect city, because the city will represent human soul, Socrates says; we'll go on to consider it in the individuals, considering the likeness of the bigger in the idea of the littler?(Plato 369a). Plato's ideal city is really the search for the truth of justice, if Socrates were able to find the relationship between th e soul and city in his ideal city then he would have the true meaning of justice. We saw from the reading how he came about braking down the city's parts and also that of the soul in order to see the reaction between three different regions which Plato and Socrates describe in The Republic. According to Plato, Socrates broke down the perfect city into three parts; each part is tied to a specific virtue that he believes will help define justice. The three virtues are wisdom, courage, and moderation. Wisdom is the whole knowledge, which describes the rulers of the city. The rulers should be the ones who incorporate philosophy and ruling together to rule the city wisely. Courage describes the guardians, who's job was to defend the city from invasion and take new lands for the city. The third virtue of the ideal city was moderation which is the concept of self-control and knowing ones role, also the concept of one man, one job. The ideal city described in the work is ideal to me because it relates all essential parts to bring harmony among the different kind of people and the virtues that go hand in hand with to bring about justice. Therefore, the question arises, if I would want to live in the ideal city Plato has described in the work. My answer would be yes because it seems that everyone has a specific role to follow depending upon their abilities, both physically and mentally. When I look back to the early cities Plato discussed I agree with the city of need, but that is only part of the whole scheme of things. We need to add the luxurious things and leaders and the people to protect the city. No one of those first two cities could be great by its self, sure each one had their strong points but together they are harmonious to develop the perfect city. The perfect city needs both cities' traits, beginning
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Common Stereotypes About Africa In the 21st century, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s never been more focus on Africa than now. Thanks to the revolutions sweeping through North Africa and the Middle East, Africa has the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. But just because all eyes happen to be on Africa at the moment doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean myths about this part of the world have been dispelled. Despite the intense interest in Africa today, racial stereotypes about it persist. Do you have any misperceptions about Africa? This list of common myths about Africa aims to clear them up. Africa Is a Country WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the No. 1 stereotype about Africa? Arguably, the biggest stereotype is that AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s not a continent, but a country. Ever hear someone refer to African food or African art or even the African language? Such individuals have no idea that AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s the second largest continent in the world. Instead, they view it as a tiny country with no distinct traditions, cultures or ethnic groups. They fail to realize that referring to, say, African food sounds just as odd as referring to North American food or the North American language or the North American people. AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s home to 53 countries, including island nations along the continentÃ¢â¬â¢s coast. These countries contain diverse groups of people who speak a variety of languages and practice a wide range of customs. Take Nigeria- AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s most populous country. Among the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s population of 152 million, more than 250 distinct ethnic groups live. While English is the former British colonys official language, the dialects of ethnic groups indigenous to the West African nation, such as Yoruba, Hausa, and Igbo, are commonly spoken as well. To boot, Nigerians practice Christianity, Islam and indigenous religions. So much for the myth that all Africans are alike. The most populated nation on the continent certainly proves otherwise. All Africans Look the Same If you turn to popular culture for images of people on the African continent, youÃ¢â¬â¢re likely to notice a pattern. Time and time again, Africans are depicted as if theyÃ¢â¬â¢re one and the same. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll see Africans portrayed wearing face paint and animal print and all with nearly pitch black skin. The controversy surrounding singer Beyonce KnowlesÃ¢â¬â¢ decision to don black face for French magazine LÃ¢â¬â¢Officiel is a case in point. In a photo shoot for the magazine described as Ã¢â¬Å"a return to her African roots,Ã¢â¬ Knowles darkened her skin to a deep brown, wore splotches of blue and beige paint on her cheekbones and leopard print clothing, not to mention a necklace made out of bone-like material. The fashion spread sparked public outcry for a number of reasons. For one, Knowles portrays no particular African ethnic group in the spread, so which roots did she pay tribute to during the shoot? The generic African heritage LÃ¢â¬â¢Officiel claims Knowles honors in the spread really just amounts to racial stereotyping. Do some groups in Africa wear face paint? Sure, but not all do. And the leopard print clothing? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not a look favored by indigenous African groups. It simply highlights that the Western world commonly views Africans as tribal and untamed. As for the skin-darkening- Africans, even sub-Saharan ones, have a range of skin tones, hair textures, and other physical traits. This is why some people pegged LÃ¢â¬â¢OfficielÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to darken KnowlesÃ¢â¬â¢ skin for the shoot unnecessary. After all, not every African is black-skinned. As Dodai Stewart of Jezebel.com put it: Ã¢â¬Å"When you paint your face darker in order to look more Ã¢â¬ËAfrican,Ã¢â¬â¢ arenÃ¢â¬â¢t you reducing an entire continent, full of different nations, tribes, cultures, and histories, into one brown color?Ã¢â¬ Egypt IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t Part of Africa Geographically, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no question: Egypt sits squarely in Northeast Africa. Specifically, it borders Libya to the West, Sudan to the South, the Mediterranean Sea to the North, the Red Sea to the East and Israel and the Gaza Strip to the Northeast. Despite its location, Egypt is often not described as an African nation, but as Middle Eastern- the region where Europe, Africa, and Asia meet. This omission stems mostly from the fact that EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s population of more than 80 million is heavily Arab- with up to 100,000 Nubians in the South- a drastic difference from the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Complicating matters is that Arabs tend to be classified as Caucasian. According to scientific research, the ancient Egyptians- known for their pyramids and sophisticated civilization- were neither European nor sub-Saharan African biologically, but a genetically distinct group. In one study cited by John H. Relethford in the Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology, ancient skulls belonging to populations from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, the Far East and Australia were compared to determine the racial origin of ancient Egyptians. If Egyptians did indeed originate in Europe, their skull samples would closely match those of ancient Europeans. Researchers found, however, that this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case. But the Egyptian skull samples werenÃ¢â¬â¢t similar to those of sub-Saharan Africans either. Rather, Ã¢â¬Å"the ancient Egyptians are Egyptian,Ã¢â¬ Relethford writes. In other words, Egyptians are an ethnically unique people. These people happen to be situated on the African continent, though. Their existence reveals AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity. Africa Is All Jungle Never mind that the Sahara Desert makes up one-third of Africa. Thanks to Tarzan films and other cinematic portrayals of Africa, many mistakenly believe that jungle occupies most of the continent and that ferocious beasts roam its entire landscape. Black activist Malcolm X, who visited several African countries before his assassination in 1965, took issue with this depiction. He not only discussed Western stereotypes of Africa but also how such stereotypes resulted in black Americans distancing themselves from the continent. Ã¢â¬Å"They always project Africa in a negative light: jungle savages, cannibals, nothing civilized,Ã¢â¬ heÃ pointed out. In reality, Africa housesÃ a wide range of vegetation zones. Only a small portion of the continent includes jungle or rainforests. These tropical areas are located along the Guinea Coast and in the Zaire River Basin. AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest vegetation zone is actually savanna or tropical grassland. Moreover, AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s home to urban centers with populations in the multimillions, including Cairo, Egypt; Lagos, Nigeria; and Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. By 2025, more than half of the African population will reside in cities, according toÃ some estimates. Black American Slaves Came From All Over Africa Largely due to the misconception that AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s a country, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not uncommon for people to assume that black Americans have ancestors from all over the continent. In reality, the slaves traded throughout the Americas originated specifically along AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s western coast. For the first time, Portuguese sailors whoÃ¢â¬â¢d previously traveled to Africa for gold returned to Europe with 10 African slaves in 1442, PBSÃ reports. Four decades later, the Portuguese built a trading post on the Guinean shore called Elmina, or Ã¢â¬Å"the mineÃ¢â¬ in Portuguese. There, gold, ivory, and other goods were traded along with African slaves- exported for weapons, mirrors, and cloth, to name a few. Before long, Dutch and English ships began arriving at Elmina for African slaves as well. By 1619, Europeans had forced a million slaves into the Americas. Altogether, 10 to 12 million Africans were forced into servitude in the New World. These Africans were Ã¢â¬Å"either captured in warring raids or kidnapped and taken to the port by African slave traders,Ã¢â¬ PBS notes. Yes, West Africans played a key role in the transatlantic slave trade. For these Africans, slavery was nothing new, but African slavery in no way resembled North and South American slavery. In his book, theÃ African Slave Trade, Basil Davidson likens slavery on the African continent to European serfdom. Take the Ashanti Kingdom of West Africa, where Ã¢â¬Å"slaves could marry, own property and even own slaves,Ã¢â¬ PBS explains. Slaves in the United States enjoyed no such privileges. Moreover, while slavery in the U.S. was linked to skin color- with blacks as servants and whites as masters- racism was not the impetus for slavery in Africa. Plus, like indentured servants, slaves in Africa were typically released from bondage after a set amount of time. Accordingly, slavery in Africa never lasted across generations. Wrapping Up Many mythsÃ about Africa date back centuries. In the modern day, new stereotypes about the continent have emerged. Thanks to a sensationalistic news media, people worldwide associate Africa with famine, war, AIDS, poverty and political corruption. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t to say that such problems donÃ¢â¬â¢t exist in Africa. Of course, they do. But even in a nation as wealthy as the United States, hunger, abuse of power and chronic illness factor into everyday life. While the continent of Africa faces enormous challenges, not every African is in need, nor is every African nation in crisis. Source Relethford, John. Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology. 2 edition, McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, October 18, 1996.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Russians As the Others in 1920s and Early 1930s Hollywood - Essay Example The movie can be used as a symbol of the fate of Russians in Hollywood. It must first be understood that Russians had very limited success in Hollywood with the possible exception of Kirk Douglas whose parents were Russian Jewish immigrants. But this was because Douglas had no accent issues as he was trained at American Academy. However the rest of the actors of Russian descent had marginalized success in Hollywood as their accent forever sealed their fate and they were limited to either smaller side roles or at best character actors. They couldn't make it to the mainstream roles. Freaks (1932) is a sign of that fate. The movie is symbolic of what happened to those Russians who tried to enter the Hollywood. In this movie, the only Russian born actress, is the leading female character of Cleopatra played by immensely beautiful Olga Baclanova. Baclanova had arrived in USA with Moscow Theatre group. Her first love was stage and that is what she was doing when a role in Freaks was offered.