Thursday, January 23, 2020

Students Metacognitive Abilities Essay -- Education, Researchers and T

Literature Review Research on the Problem Researchers and theorists have sought the key behind getting students to learn for decades. For every theory placed on the table, there is another waiting to clear it off and replace it. This dichotomy can be challenging for teachers who are searching for the answers to help them reach their students especially when these students are asked to do mundane tasks like memorize. In addition, many teachers struggle to identify the root cause of their student’s struggles with material, and once pin pointed, they often find it difficult to address these causes. What are the exact challenges the students are struggling with? In her research, Nancy Joseph, believes the answer to this question lies in a lack of metacognitive ability in the students. â€Å"Your ability to plan, monitor, and evaluate your performance reveals sophisticated cognitive activity.† (Joseph, 2006) If the students are not capable of reaching this level of cognitive ability, they will not be able to grow with the difficulty of the class material. Each student learns best in his or her own way, and by understanding this â€Å"learners are able to use their academic strengths to develop additional skills and understanding, moving toward greater intellectual maturity.† (Joseph, 2006) Students cannot develop critical thinking skills as it relates to content if they do not possess the skill to think critically at all. The pathway to metacognitive ability begins with self-reflection. At the junior high level, students are unaware that the ability to be reflective is a skill that will carry them through life; not just in their current Language Arts Classroom (Joseph, 2006). Teachers are told almost daily about how important ... ...is difficult, and that they must be creative in finding ways to make easier for the students to understand. If they do not, then they will keep doing what they have always done, and continue getting the same results. I hope to examine parts of the studies that have already been conducted on these issues. I will be looking at the result of connecting games, social interaction, practice, direct instruction, indirect instruction, and to what extent a student’s metacognitive level has on their ability to memorize material such as prepositions. As Ellis noted, â€Å"the results of the research do not afford conclusions that can be readily applied to language pedagogy.† (Ellis, 2011) My attempts will be focused on a more general scope of application in the classroom, and I will try to bridge the gap between the research, theorists, and practical application.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

An Era of Smart Phones and Dumb People

An Era of Smart Phones and Dumb People You spot them immediately. They're gathered around the swing set Eke moths to an open flame; not talking, Just looking down at what's In their small hands. There's around four of them, appearing to be first graders or so, testing away twice as fast as you ever could, completely oblivious to everything around them. Pausing for a second, you stop to wonder, â€Å"Whatever happened to actually using the swing set? † Technology is like a fine wine; as it matures and ages, it becomes better and better, making it appeal to large crowds of people.Yet what happens If one has too much wine? They become drunk. Just like an alcoholic, the next generation appears as if they are addicted to this modern technology, and that is not be such a good thing as people think It Is. The kids seem to be gradually losing one of the most delicate and treasured things on this planet: human Interaction. For example, let me pose a simple question, when was the last t ime you have a game night with your family, or any other time that was solely devoted to your nearest and dearest? Some will answer years while others, mere days.Twenty-first century based females tend to go to their own sections of the house with an electronic of their choice, whether that may be a Kindle, phone, Pod, Tablet, you name it, instead of hanging out with their family. Young children observe this and brand It as the norm. Well, why shouldn't they? Aren't we the ones at blame for this? The ones they look to in order to know how to interact, to act with others? Look at the older population, the elderly, in your community; they will smile at you through car windows while parked at red lights or ask you how you're doing while o'er both standing In the grocery line at your local supermarket.Sadly, this seems to be a rare thing to stumble across these days in all of us young people. Back when I was a kid, If I wanted to play a game I would go find my brother and we would have to make one up ourselves. That's right; we had to use our imaginations, just like our dear friend Sponge taught us to. But now, with Inventions such as the Leaped and Manitoba, instead of making up their own games, children have the ability to download over three hundred and twenty-five APS with a push of a button.Along with these APS, as if they weren't already enough, the youngsters can record videos, take pictures with the two cameras available, listen to music, and access an internet made just for them. At their age, I had sidewalk chalk and a stinking Jump rope for crying out loud. Yet why would they choose such simple, ordinary things when they have hours of guaranteed entertainment right at their little fingertips, within those many APS? Snatching away. Ah yes, now I've remembered.You know all those outdoor toy commercials that make kids want to explore the great outside? Me neither. Outside: The brilliant archenemy of the indoors. It's a place to be loud, rambunctious, and l east of all quiet. In a nutshell, it's a child's heaven on Earth, or should be. But instead of actually going outdoors to play, kids tend to stay inside claiming it's too hot, too cold, too windy, too†¦ Too anything really. So instead they sit on the couch watching mindless television shows while withering away into nothing more or less than lazy, couch potatoes.If the patterns keep up we may eventually all turn into mild forms of the characters in the beloved movie Wall-E: grotesquely fat, genealogy obsessed humans, who don't know how to live without an electronic in one hand and a remote in another. This sickens and saddens me all at once. Now, am I declaring that all technology is bad and it should be banished from Earth never to be spoken of or seen again? That we should Just absentmindedly convert back to the ways our ancestors and live without modern conveniences? Of course I'm not!I'm merely asking you to take a step back and look at how much technology you use on a dail y basis, even if it's Just making a call on your cell phone r turning on the TV to unwind after a long day at work. I simply don't want a world where the next generation becomes engulfed and overwhelmed by the sheer amount of technology being shoved down their throats as soon as they are able to walk and talk. The relationships we construct with others should be cherished and preserved by interacting with each other face-to-face every rather than Just testing each other. I'm asking you to get off the couch and be social.Go to Struck with a few friends, go shopping with them, or maybe even volunteer and meet new people. Find the balance in your life; don't let technology control it. The same goes for your children, sure you can give them a Nintendo or a Tablet, but remember to shoo them outside every once in a while to play. A child's imagination or anyone's really, can't be replaced with APS and computers, it's Just impossible. They can be compressed, though, if they don't have a ch ance to grow. A close friend once told me, â€Å"We are living in the era of smart phones and dumb people,† and if you think about it enough, we are. We really, truly are.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Is Bridget jones nothing more than Pride and Prejudice in...

Love and marriage is the theme of the best selling book Bridget Jones’ Diary by Helen Fielding and the critically acclaimed novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. There are numerous similarities between the two yet they are set in different eras. Despite this, the young women in both texts have to deal with family and people in their social circles pressurising them to meet the ideal man or love interest. Each story revolves around the main female characters, Bridget Jones and Elizabeth Bennet. In pride prejudice, the financial status of the women was more of an issue when it came to finding an ideal partner, than it was in Bridget Jones’ Diary. The Bennets were not very financially secure, so Mrs Bennet would arrange or attend parties†¦show more content†¦Nowadays, this has changed as Bridgets love life with her boyfriend Daniel Cleaver, affects no one but herself and she is not concerned how her relationship with him will affect her parents. In both texts the men have very high expectations of the women they want to date or court, and seem to disregard women who do not reach these standards. An example of this is when Bridget overhears Mark Darcy talking about her to his mother remarking on how inappropriate her language is and how dependable she is on alcohol and cigarettes. â€Å"Mother I do not need a blind date. Particularly not with some verbally incontinent spinster who drinks like a fish, smokes like a chimney and dresses like her mother.† Mark doesn’t want to be associated or fixed up with Bridget as she does not fit his ideal. Equally, Mr Darcy tells his friend Mr Bingley how outspoken and rude the Bennet girls are, and how he dislikes the family. He makes this known to Elizabeth by refusing to dance with her. â€Å"Indeed, sir, I have not the least intention of dancing. I entreat you not to suppose that I moved this way in order to beg for a partner.† Mr Darcy replied with this, when asked if he would like to dance with her. Mr Darcy feels Elizabeth is of a lower status than himself, and looks down on her for that, in the same way that Mark does on Bridget preferring to keep friendship with his more likely partner Natasha his work colleague. Bridget feels personally, that she isShow MoreRelatedMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 Pagesgeneration of entrepreneurs. A fair number of the older cases have faced significant changes in the last few years, for better or for worse, and these we have captured to add to learning insights. After so many years of investigating mistakes, and more recently successes also, it might seem a challenge to keep these new editions fresh and interesting. The joy of the chase has made this an intriguing endeavor through the decades. Still, it is always difficult to abandon interesting cases that have

Monday, December 30, 2019

Business Cycle Essay - 800 Words

In everyday society, companies are affected by the economy. The company either suffers or benefits depending on what kind of economy it is. This will depend on what kind of company it is, and what kind of market the business does well in. The Business Cycle is what determines this factor. It is a term used in economics to designate changes in the economy. Timing of the business cycle is not predictable, but its phases seem to be. Many economists site four phases—prosperity, liquidation, depression, and recovery. During a period of prosperity, a rise in production leads to increases in employment, wages, and profits. Obstacles then begin to obstruct further expansion. Production costs can increase, helping create a rise in prices, and†¦show more content†¦Peapod, is an Internet grocer that provides online grocery shopping to various cities across the country. In an economy where unemployment is rapidly decreasing , anything that can allow people to get things done easily and swiftly are greatly appreciated. Since Americans work more hours than any other country in this world, Peapod can only benefit from everybody’s inability to not stop working. Nobody has enough time to do the little things, like get gas, go grocery shopping, etc.†¦ Society is also willing to pay the extra bucks to have the groceries hand delivered to their doors because grocery shopping is a hassle and its annoying. No one likes doing it but it is something you have to do, might as well have someone else do it for you. Peapod is a sure thing for the next millennium. FannieMae is a company that makes capital by lending money to people who need mortgages and by borrowing money at low interest rates. FannieMae is able to make money in any kind of economy. During times of low interest rates they make money on people who bought fixed rate mortgages at a time of high interest rates. They also have a hard making money during this time because their marginal percentage is smaller and they make less of a profit. During times of high interest rates, they lose money on people who bought fixed rate mortgages at low interest rates. They also make a lot of assets during this time because they borrow from the federal reserve or banks at lower interest rates and lendShow MoreRelatedBusiness Cycle1566 Words   |  7 PagesASSIGNMENT 1 Introduction In macroeconomics, business cycle played an important role to show what a national economy is going; therefore, this essay will define what business cycle is and its characteristics. Besides, all of variables such as Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP), inflation and unemployment rate and their behaviour in the business cycle will be also demonstrated in the second part. The final part of this essay will analyse and compare the situation of Australian economy and USARead MoreEffect Of The Business Cycle Essay983 Words   |  4 PagesThis study uses time-series data from the CPS March data to investigate the effect of the business cycle from 2003 to 2014 on the wage differentials between females and males. The CPS is a monthly sample survey of approximately 60,000 households conducted by the Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which can be considered as the primary source of labor force statistics for the population of the United States. This study also uses data from th e Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS)Read MoreMexico Business Cycle1260 Words   |  6 PagesMexico’s Business Cycle The term business cycle or economic cycle refers to the fluctuations of economic activity around its long-term growth trend. 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However, things do not alwaysRead MoreReal Business Cycles Hypothesis Sees Cycles1839 Words   |  8 PagesIntroduction Real Business Cycles hypothesis sees cycles as starting in frictionless splendidly focused economies with for the most part finish markets subject to genuine stuns (irregular changes in innovation or efficiency), it makes the contention that cycles are predictable with aggressive general harmony situations in which all operators are levelheaded maximizers (The Economist). In opposition to what Keynesian, Monetarist, and new traditional business analysts trusted, RBC scholars, beginningRead MoreMacro Economics - Business Cycles1410 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Cycles Business Cycles ââ€" º The value of real GDP over time shows periodic fluctuations in its movement ââ€" º The business cycle refers to the periodic fluctuations of economic activity about its long term growth trend ââ€" º The Business cycle is the more or less regular pattern of expansion (recovery) and contraction (recession) in economic activity around the path of trend growth. ï‚ § At cyclical peak, economic activity is high relative to trend ï‚ § At a cyclical trough, the lowRead MoreThe Four Stages Of The Business Cycle799 Words   |  4 Pagesstages of the business cycle are complex phases that our economy undergoes. To grasp the concept of the stages, you must first be familiarized with the business cycle itself. The business cycle is the alternating periods of growth and decline. Or to be more intricate, â€Å"The business cycle is the periodic but irregular up-and-down movement in economic activity, measured by fluctuations in real gross domestic product (GDP) and other macroeconomic variables,† (Inc.com). A business cycle is comprised ofRead MoreKeynes Theory Of Business Cycles Essay2306 Words   |  10 PagesKeynes Theory of Business Cycles Introduction A business cycle refers to a phenomenon of alternating periods of expansion and contraction in economic activity. In many cases such as have been witnessed in free market nations including the USA and Great Britain, economic growth is characterized by long-run upward GNP growth, followed by large periodic short-run fluctuations in economic activity. The economic period associated with high income, output and unemployment, is also known as upswing expansionRead MoreThe Economic Position On The Business Cycle1507 Words   |  7 Pageshe business cycle, also known as the trade cycle, is defined as â€Å"the fluctuation in economic activity that an economy experiences over a period of time† (SOURCE). Basically, the trade cycle is the alternating cyclical movement of economic conditions; phasing through periods of expansion, peaks, contractions, troughs and recoveries. Predicting the whereabouts of a nation and its economy on the trade cycle is a very important challenge; as the d etermination of current and forecasted economic conditions

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Police Brutality in Anywhere, USA Essay - 738 Words

After our marching bands performance at a football game was cancelled because of lightning, about six or seven of the band members (including a few student leaders) sat around shooting the breeze, not fighting, not smoking, not drinking, not being loud. An unmarked police car rolled up and our conversation stopped as we turned our attention to him. nbsp; In an acrid and condescending tone, the policeman pointed a finger to the exit of the parking lot and said, Out. nbsp; Okay, just give us a moment to figure out what we can do, we replied. We wondered if Friendlys was still open, and asked the officer, who gave us a cold look. nbsp; You can get out now, or in 20 minutes I can start writing tickets for†¦show more content†¦My friend and I, both student leaders, got out of the car to address the situation. nbsp; The officer, frantic and quite enraged at his own idiocy, pointed a menacing finger at me, Let me see your ID. nbsp; Why do want to see my ID? I asked, because I was the passenger. nbsp; Let me see your ID! he demanded. I asked why again, reminding him that it was a legitimate question. Getting the same non-answer, I started to hand him my license. He all but ripped it from my hand. nbsp; And may I have your name? I asked. He is Detective X. nbsp; A fine representation of the Marching Knights you are! he yelled. I must have missed the meeting that decided nothing cordial will be said by, and no questions will be asked of, an officer of the law. Even though my parents pay him his salary, he is above acting like a decent human being. His last name sounded familiar. I should have known better than to ask if I knew his son. The officers eyes widened and he yelled, You leave my family out of this! I guess that was his way of saying yes. nbsp; As three more police cars showed up, Officer X instructed everyone to go home except for me and my friend. He said he knew everyone had junior licenses and would be out past curfew, when actually the only one who did was rear-ended by a cop, which caused him to stay out way past curfew (nice irony). Officer X also suggested, very rudely, that aShow MoreRelatedThe Epidemic of Police Brutality1046 Words   |  5 Pages Police are abusing their power, of their badge, instead of serve and protect; their ignoring and abusing. Theres been many killings (almost about 5,000 people),abusing, and people being ignored from police, Why? For nearly 50 years, a deadly and effective attack has been orchestrated against local police departments all throughout the United States and most Americans do not even realize it is happening. News people like CNN, CBS, or Fox 4 News sometimes get a scoop of the police beating, butRead MoreThe Relationship Between Politics And Hip Hop Music Essay1570 Words   |  7 Pagesgraffiti writing and break dancing. As this style of music became more established, an evolution began, as sampling technology and drum machines became more affordable and widely available. Although the origins of hip-hop music seem to begin in the USA, over a century before this West African musician told stories rhythmically, accompanied only by drums. Meanwhile in the Caribbean Islands, folk musicians were telling stories in rhyme – both were laying the foundations for modern day American rap musicRead MoreThe Black Panther Party For Self Defense1652 Words   |  7 Pagesorganizing and community based programs . The supplement Ten Point Program of the Black Panther Party included: Freedom, Full Employment, an end to robbery by the capitalists of black community, housing, education, exemption from military service, end to police, freedom for convicted blacks, wanting all people tried in court to be tried by jury of their peer group from black communities, and land, bread, clothing, justice, and peace. 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The civil rights movement in the United States was a political, legal, and social struggle that was organized by black Americans with some helpRead MoreCounter Terrorism Laws And Human Rights5263 Words   |  22 Pageswas a signatory or ratifying party, also justified the limitations on governmental powers. However, the contemporary reality of Indian executive governance demonstrates the weaknesses and inadequacies of the treaties and conventions. As a result, police, military and para-military forces continue to violate human rights. This problem underscores the need to develop a culture amongst law enforcement officials that respects human rights as a sine qua non for the preservation of the rule of law. PassingRead MoreThe Process of Developing Policies: The President and Foreign Affairs3359 Words   |  14 Pagesinvolved in determining the course of American foreign policy. 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Today, hundreds of thousands of individualsRead MoreTorture and Custodial Violence in Prisons12554 Words   |  51 Pages Jindal Global Law School, O.P. Jindal Global University, Sonipat, Haryana. Report on - The Custodial Violence and Torture In Prisons: Can it be justified even if done for a greater good? Where to draw the line between the autonomy of the police and the rights of the prisoners ? Basic Structure – * Human Rights- Importance, protection, NHRC’s role, International law,State, District. Why are they important? * What is the root problem? * Definition of Torture/ custodial violence. Is

Friday, December 13, 2019

Follicular And Mantle Cell Lymphomas Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

string(319) " purging perchance of import ; unproved Whether it has maior consequence on results ; value of post-transplantation RTX uncertain ; talker recommends handling rate 3 FL per protocols for DLBCL Questions and replies: consequence of length of i ¬\?rst remittal on recommendations for ASCT – in other diseases \( e\." follicular lymphoma 2nd most common type of lymphoma in United States ; diagnosticians able to name PL with less information and more duplicability than any other type of lymphoma ; FLs vary in character ; cutaneal ( follicle centre cell ) lymphomas normally curable with local therapy ; duodenal and paediatric -both rare indolent diseases ; make good with minimum therapy ; by and large non do of decease in affected patients Grade 3 follicular lymphoma: presently defined by figure of big ( blast ) cells per high-power field ( HPF ) ; method tolerably accurate in FL, and most consistent ; grade 1, lt ; 5 big cells per HPF, grade 2, 5 to 15 per HPF, and grade 3, gt ; 15 per HPF ; duplicability survey — -diagnosis of FL by diagnosticians gt ; 90 % consistent, but well less accurate in finding class: class 3 FL farther classified as 3A ( big cleaved cells ) and 3B ( blast cells ) ; nevertheless, limited truth in finding class may bespeak limited duplicability in separating 3A fr om 3B ; distinctniess of class 3B ( Sloan-Kettering survey ) — -maximum standardised consumption ( [ SUV ] of fluorodeoxy glucose on antielectron emanation imaging [ PET ] ) in class 3 FL more similar to SUV in patients with diffuse similar to SUV in patients with diffuse big B cell lymphoma ( DLBCL ) than grade 1 or 2 FL ; Harris survey — per centum of Ki-67 stain-positive cells increased With increasing class of FL, with grade 3 FL staining near to degrees seen in DLBCL ; several surveies showed that some patients with FL grade 3 treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, Oncovin ( oncotic ) and Pediapred ( CHOP ) or CHOP like regimens had response to therapy similar to that of patients with DLBCL ; ability to bring around this group justifies handling all patients with grade 3 FL with regimens used to handle DLBCL.Low-grade FL: multiple effectual interventions available ( best one as yet unknown ) : ticker and wait – lupus erythematosus favored ; single-agen t Leukeran or cyclophosphamide — no longer used ( most patients treated with combination therapy ) ; local radiation therapy ( RT ) — used in patients with localised disease: total-body irradiation — out of favour ; patient Immunity and FL ( Rosenberg survey ) — showed self-generated slirinkage of FL in many patients ; multiple surveies show patients with fewer macrophages have better endurance than patients with high degrees ( may explicate shrinking without intervention ) ; vaccinum survey — -without intervention ) ; vaccinum survey — subset of patients who made antibodies had duplicating of progression-free endurance ( PFS ; suggests possibility of use of _relationship between FL and environment ) ; Gallic survey – inauspicious consequence of high macrophage degrees eliminated in patients treated with rituximab ( RTX ; suggests changing microenvironment as possible mechanism of action of interventions, including autologous root cell organ transplant [ ASCT ] ) ; ASCT non considered intervention for FL until late ( despite informations ) ASCT as salvage therapy: Chemotherapy, Unpurged and Purged ( CUP ) test – patients randomized to CHOP chemotherapy ( CTX ) entirely, or ASCT ( with or without purged marrow ) plus CHOP, in patients who had failed on Leukeran or other CTX ; patients in both organ transplant weaponries had important advantage in PFS and overall endurance ( OS ) ; survey indicates ASCT effectual therapy before RTX ; consequences decline after insistent intervention ; 3 of 4 upfront ASCT surveies in patients with FL show extremely important advantage in PFS ( no agvantage in OS ) , but upfront ASCT non done in United States ; St. Bart’s/Dana Farber and UNMC informations — – of patients Farber and UNMC informations — of patients treated with ASCT ( pre-RTX, largely grades 1 and 2 ) , somewhat lt ; 50 % had 10-yr freedom from disease patterned advance Possible functions of RTX in FL: remedy of FL ( rid ofing demand for organ transplant ) -Stanford survey update, UNMC survey, and Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results ( SEER ) data show betterment in FL endurance over past 3 decennaries ; RTX of import subscriber to alter ( although other factors possible ) ; Cochrane meta-analysis — patients given RTX in initial therapy had extremely important survival advantage ; UNMC informations analysis suggests patients with low-grade FL and initial intervention with RTX had superior endurance, compared to patients having RTX at other times or non at all ; Primary RTX and Maintenance ( PRIMA ) survey – care RTX increased opportunity of continued remittal by 20 % ; consequence larger in patients with complete response ( CR ) than in those with partial response ( PR ) ; Swiss survey — demonstrated survival advantage with merely 4 extra doses of RTX ; analysis of PET informations from PRIMA survey — negative findings on PET seen in 92 % of patients with true CR ; one-third of patients with unsure CR PET-positive ; 20 % of patients with progressive disease 20 % of patients with progressive disease PET-negative ; PET negativeness best forecaster of result ; RTX improves endurance of FL, but unclear Whether it cures high proportion of patients with low-grade FL, ASCT after RTX therapy: Spanish survey and Collaborative Trial in Relapse Aggressive Lymphoma ( CORAL ) — — – patients with DLBCL treated with RTX before ASCT # 50 % more likely to be cured than patients with no RTX ; perchance due to bring around rate of patients after RTX therapy ( ie, patients still necessitating ASCT after RTX probably had more immune disease ) ; German surveies – patients witlt FL randomized to ASCT V care with interferon ( IFN ) af ter initiation with CHOP ; patients who got CHOP plus RTX ( R-CHOP ) and ASCT had somewhat better endurance than patients on IFN ; patients without RTX had much better endurance with ASCT than with IFN ; Cleveland study – no important difference in endurance after ASCT betweett patients with relapsed FL who had received RTX in past and those who had non In vivo purge: no direct informations available on effects on ASCT results ; UNMC informations — patients treated with monoclonal antibodies ( MAB ) and RTX earlier cell aggregation had better results after ASCT ( ill-defined how much betterment due toMAB V RTX ) ; Gallic survey – patients treated with MAB for salvage therapy had better results ; other surveies -majority of patients had no tumour cells ( per polymerase concatenation reaction [ PCR ] ) after RTX Post-transplantation care: small informations available ; several surveies showed important proportions of patients had delayed neutropenia or hypoganimma gloibulinemia if treated with RTX after ASCT ; no inerease in mortality seen with RTX, but it gives no advantage ( and increases trouble for patients ) ‘Conclusions: public-service corporation of RTX in FL remains ill-defined ; ASCT remains best tratment in younger healthier patients for relapsed FL ; best given after first intervention failure ; vivo purging perchance of import ; unproved Whether it has maior consequence on results ; value of post-transplantation RTX uncertain ; talker recommends handling rate 3 FL per protocols for DLBCL Questions and replies: consequence of length of i ¬?rst remittal on recommendations for ASCT – in other diseases ( e. You read "Follicular And Mantle Cell Lymphomas Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" We will write a custom essay sample on Follicular And Mantle Cell Lymphomas Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now g, Hodgkin lymphoma ) , patients do less good with brief initial remittal and ASCT, but likely better than with alternate likely better than with alternate therapies ; if patient immature and healthy, talker would still offer ASCT ; talker would discourse ASCT with immature healthy patients who have had really long or really brief remittals ; PET as tool to place faineant class 3 FL — unknown if patients with low SUVmaX should hold different intervention ; differences in diagnosing of class 3 FL add complexness to determination for intervention ; upfront allotransplantantation for FL — -best intervention to eliminate FL ; limited by 20 % to 30 % freshman mortality ( mortality decreases with age of patient ) Minimal Residual Disease in Follicular and Mantle Cell Lymphoma: -Foundation: CHRISTINE POTT, MD. absence of residuary lymphoma mass on imagination and bone marrow biopsy ( low sensitiveness ) referred to as clinical remittal ; analysis of minimum residuary disease ( MRD ) below clinical remittal reveals different dynamicss of lymphoma ( may specify those who will get worse, and those with remedy or who will get worse, and those with remedy or long-run remittal ) ; MRD techniques — extremely sensitive and loosely applicable ; may assist clinicians understand disease dynamicss on molecular degree ; allow polish of clinical presenting Benefits of MRD analysis: provides possible alternate parametric quantity for clinical response ; integrates biologic Features of tumour ; rei ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ects pharmacogenetic traits and dose strength achieved in single patients ; identifies prognostic subgroups in B cell lymphoma ; independent predictive factor ; of import tool for indivtdualizing intervention Assessment of MRD ) : cytogenetics and fluorescent unmoved hybridisation ( FISH ) non sufficiently sensitive ( more utile for initial diagnosing and appraisal of malignant lymphoma ) ; flow cytometry and PCR chief methods ; i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ow cytometry — loosely applicable, fast, and provides quantitative consequences ; nevertheless, malignant lymphoma has partly unstable markers ( non reproducible in many patients ) ; in FL, sensitivenesss vary harmo nizing to benign hematogones ; consensus PCR — easy, rapid to perform.inexpensive, and stable, but non quantitative ; has low sensitiveness ; immunogen-based allele-specii ¬?c PCR — most advanced method ; sensitive, with- most advanced method ; sensitive, with quantitative consequences ; specific and extremely consistent ; nevertheless, labour-intensive and expenslve.PCR markers: irnntunoflobttlin cistrons — -heavy concatenation ( IgH ) an visible radiation concatenation ( IgK ) ; applicable in B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and acute leukaemia ; T cell receptor cistrons — – potentially available for T non-Hodgkin lymphomas and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia ; chromosomal translocations — T ( 1/14 ; 18 ) for FL ; T ( 11 ; 14 ) fer mantle cell lymphoma ( MCL ) ; translocations serve as marks in # 80 % of B cell lymphomas, in 60 % to 70 % of FL, and 30 % to 40 % af MCL ; these techniques quantify MRD in # 80 % of patients ; imrnunoglobulin heavy-chain venue – mast loosely applicable marker, rearrangement of V, D, and ] H parts in normal development of B cells ; sequence in this junctional part Acts of the Apostless as ‘DNA ‘ i ¬?ngerprint of cell ( identifiable by consensus PCR ) ; monoclonal rearrangement in lymphoma identified by gene-scan form with monoclonal extremum ; sequencing of monoclonal rearrangement allows allele-specific primer design to aim single patient ‘s sequence ; translocation marks — – T ( 14,18 ) breaktpoints in marks — T ( 14,18 ) breakpoints in different locations in cistron ; can measure # 70 % of patients with major breakpoint part ; assay developed by Biomed 2 Group usage to measure other countries ; translocations act as molecular markers ( eg, t [ 11 ; 14 ] ) Prognostic relevancy of MRD: shown in early surveies ; betterment in curative options led to increase in surveies look intoing MRD as alternate parametric quantity for forecast ; FL surveies — showed accomplishment of molecular remittal associated with improved forecast, irrespective of whether patients received ASCT, CTX, or rituximab Floridas: Lopez-Guillermo survey — – showed accomplishment of molecular remittal possible with standard-dose CTX without antibodies ; failure-free endurance significantly better in patients who achieve both clinical and molecular remittal ; Italian survey — -PCR negativeness associated with improved forecast in patients treated with CHOP entirely or R-CHOP ; Gribben survey — updated consequences show patients with sustained MRD negativeness ( by PCR ) after ASCT have continued long-run endurance ; recent Italian survey ( .2008 ) — – PCR negativeness most of import predictive factor both in patients treated with R- factor both in patients treated with R-CHOP and those who received RTX plus high-dose consecutive CTX ; outcomes improved with molecular remittal MCL: fewer surveies available ; several surveies conclude MRD has no predictive consequence in MCL ; relevancy seen after debut of RTX and ASCT ; monocentric survey — – patients consecutive monitored for MRD after R-CHOP, root cell mobilisation with dexaBEAM ( dexatnethasone_ carmustine [ BCNU ] , etoposide, cytarabine [ Ara-C ] and Alkeran ) before ASCT ; MRD ) negativeness associated with longer PFS ( 92 minute, vs 24 minute in MRD~positive patients ) and OS ; European web tests – MRD analysis done in patients under and gt ; 65 year of age after initiation with immuno-CTX ; patients accomplishing clinical and molecular remittal have significantly longer continuance of response, irrespective of whether MRD achieved in blood or hone marrow ; molecular response after initiation superior predictive factor, compared to Mantle Cell International Prognostic Index ( MIPI ) mark and accomplishment of clinical response.Summary: PCR identifies low- and poor-risk groups in FL and MCL ; PCR holds true in multivariate analysis and is true in multivariate analysis and is independent of pretherapeutic hazard factors ; MRD negativeness achievable without ASCT Timing of MRD appraisal in FL: available surveies show relevant clip points for obtaining predictive informations ; German Lymphoma Study Group test – rating at diagnosing allowed presentation of association between low degree of go arounding lymphoma cells and molecular response ; MRRD dynamicss during initiation ( after 4 intervention rhythms ) showed that patients with rapid decrease of go arounding lymphoma cells have high chance of clinical remittal, compared to patients with slow response ; PFS with molecular remittal significantly greater than that with clinical remittal entirely ; postremission clip point of import if MRD used as foster parametric quantity ; multivariate analysis shows MRD ) better predictive factor than RTX treatnient, ASCT, or pretherapeiitic FL International Prognostic index ( FLIPI ) hazard factors ; extra informations analysis showed MRD position helps to define patients with different forecasts independent of clinical remittal position ; sustained MRD position — — forecast significantly better in patients with sustained molecular patients witch sustained molecular response in first twelvemonth after ASCT or intervention with interferon, compared to patients who developed MRD positiveness within first twelvemonth after ASCT or during care therapy.Timing of MRD appraisal in MCL: predictive relevancy shown after initiation and in postremission period ; increasing MRD ) degrees predict backsliding ; aged patients who stay in molecular remittal on care intervention have significantly longer continuance of response.Who should have MRD ) intervention: no current application of MRD ) to patients non enrolled in clinical tests Decisions: accomplishment of molecular remittal appropriate curative end for new clinical tests and interventions ; MRD appears executable for steering intervention, cut downing costs, and diminishing side effects ; identifies patient subgroups with durable remittals ; MRD allows individua lized hazard appraisal and intervention Future functions of MRD: rating of new intervention theoretical accounts and substances: designation of non respondents _for possible early intervention intensification ; way of care intervention ; usage in pre-emptive therapies ; orienting intervention to single hazard proi ¬?les. Mentions: 1. Auto organ transplant for patients with Follicular Lymohoma in the epoch of rituximab: -JAMES O.ARMITAGE, MD. 2. Minimal Residual Disease in Follicular and Mantle Cell Lymphoma: -Foundation: CHRISTIANE POTT, MD. Auto organ transplant for patients with Follicular Lymohoma in the epoch of rituximab: -JAMES O.ARMITAGE MD: 2ND Subject RENAL ISSUES Abstraction The ends of this plan are to better the surgical and medical direction of locally advanced nephritic cell carcinoma and to avoid complications during public presentation of transdermal nephrolithotomy ( PNL ) . After hearing and absorbing this plan, the clinician will be better able to: 1. Surgically pull off locally atlvancetl nephritic cell malignant neoplastic disease by separating between the demand for extremist V partial nephrectomy and acknowledging the indicants for lymphadenectomy. 2. Choose the most apprepriate drugs, based 0n their meachanisms of action, for the medical intervention of nephritic malignant neoplastic disease. 3. Sumarize the current position of neoadjuvant and accessory intervention ef nephritic malignant neoplastic disease. 4. Better his or her surgical technique for PNL. 5. Acknowledge the possible complications of PNL and their intervention, including hemorrhage, hurts to next variety meats, hypotension, infection, and delayed bleeding. Surgical direction of locally advanced nephritic cell carcinoma: – STEVEN C. CAMPBELL, MD, PhD: Background: 10 % to 20 % of all kidney malignant neoplastic disease ; strong informations run uping combination of surgery and systemic intervention best ; systemic intervention both neo adjuvant and adjuvant ; dei ¬?nition of locally advanced — kidney malignant neoplastic disease widening into adrenal secretory organs, venous system, regional nodes, or next variety meats ; T3a, T3b, T3c, T4, or node positive but MO ; divergent pathology — – lymphoma { see biopsy ) ; adrenocortical malignant neoplastic disease ( endocrinologist rating ) ; sarcoma ; transitional cell Carcinoma ( cystoscopy ) Preoperative steps: complete bowl readying because hemi colectomy may be required ; obtain consent for splenectomy, distal pancreaticlotomy, and partial hepatectomy ; in instance these processs necessary to obtain negative borders ; little per centum require preoperative embolization to minimise blood loss ; co-ordinate with vascular, Cardiovascular, and hepatic sawboness. Surgery: venous engagement — for degree 1 thrombi, topographic point Stansky clinch ; level 2 thrombi require consecutive clamping inferior vein cava ( lVC ) below, contralatera nephritic vena, and IVC above ; for degree 3, mobilise liver to obtain entree to retrohepatic IVC and clamp above and below tumour ; exposure — critically of import ; chevron scratch most common ; little per centum need thoracoabdominal incisien ; as necessary to let for en block deletion ( cardinal ) Lymphadenectomy: lymph node dissection controversial ; for lymphadenectomy, usage same templet as for testicle malignant neoplastic disease ; European organisation fo research and intervention of malignant neoplastic disease ( EORTC ) survey — showed no difference in complications or endurance between extremist nephrectomy with lymphadenectomy and extremist nephrectomy without lymph node dissection ; study criticized because extent 0f lymph node dissection non good defined and analyze groups may hold had low hazard for lymph node engagement ( ascertainment prejudice ) ; Mayo clinic survey — gt ; 1600 patients ; showed 5 parametric quantities prognostic of increased likeliness of lymph node engagement, 1 ) atomic class 3 or 4, 2 ) sarcomatoid constituent, 3 ) really big 4 ) locally advanced tumour phase, and 5 ] tumour mortification ; seek to find ; parametric quantities preoperatively ( when possible ‘ ) , perform intraoperative frozen subdivision of lymph node, so make up one’s mind if lymph node dissection needed ; talker ‘s attack — normally performs lymph node, dissection on younger patients but non on ; older frail patients ; forecast for node-positive malignant neoplastic disease — hapless ; 0 % to 20 % 5-yr endurance ; bulky lymph nodes may be worse prognostically than metastatic: disease ; patients with stray venous engagement have 40 % to 50 % remedy rates ; most T3a patients do good, but at higher hazard than patients with organ-confined disease ; other predictive considerations – histology ; border position ; tumour class ; algorithms availalale for anticipation of result. Medical Management of Locally advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma: -BRIAN I.RINI, MD.Mechanism of action of drugs for nephritic malignant neoplastic disease: mammalian mark of rapamycin ( mTOR ) inhibitors — these involve tract that regulates cell proliferation and metamorphosis in response to enviromental factors, associating cell growing factor receptor signaling via phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase ( Pl-3K ) to cell growing, proliferation, and an-giogenesis ; these drugs have non been studied as neoadjuvants or adjuvants ; vascular endothelial growing factor ( VEGF ) inhibitors -more relevant curative tract ; VEGF is cardinal regulator of physiologic angiogenesis ; more drugs available against VEGF, and they by and large have greater consequence ; bulk of nephritic cell carcinomas characterized laic mutant of V0n Hippel-Lindau ( VHL ) tumour suppresser cistron, ensuing it accretion of hypoxia-inducing factor ( HIF ) ; HIF is critical written text factor that leads to activation of m any mark genes.including VEGF ; VEGF is go arounding protein that binds to endotheliel cells and leads to permeableness, migration, and proliferation of tumour blood vas cells ; inhibitors of VEGF tract include little molecules that inhibitVEGF receptor and agents such as bevacizumab, sunitinib, and sorafenib. Neoadjuvant surveies: retrospective experience — 17 patients with kidney malignant neoplastic disease with primary tumour in topographic point ; intervention with sunitinib produced 30 % average volume decrease in tumour size ; growing curves show most decrease occurs in first 2 to 4 rhythms of intervention, so i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡at period, so growing sketchs. Prospective test: patients with biopsy-proven kidney malignant neoplastic disease and unresectable priamary tumours ; treated with suntinib for 4 wk on drug and 2 wk off ; worsened clinically while off drug for 2 wk ; hence. intervention changed to uninterrupted dosing ; histology preponderantly clear cell carcinoma but non entirely, and most had metastatic disease ; about tierce of patients converted to resectable position ; gt ; 70 % had somee tumour shrinking ; shrinking averaged 19 % ( # 1.5 % centimeter ) ; greatest consequence on clear cell carcinoma. Goal of neoadjuvant therapy: to bring forth cytoreduction of tumour ; avoiding high morbidity of extremist nephrectomy and leting intervention with partial nephrectomy. Safety: neoadjuvant therapy does non adversely affect surgical result ; in MD Andersen survey of # 6O patients who received targeted therapy ( largely bevacizumab ) so underwent cytoreductive neph1’ectonty, damage of superficial wotind mending 20 times more common in those who received targeted therapy than in matched controls ; so far ( gt ; 100 patients ) , no big safety signals, eg, hemorrhage, coagulating. Accessory therapy: United States test of 1900 patients presently in advancement ; postnephrectomy patients randomized to 1 year of sunitinib, sorafenib, or placebo ; efficaciousness informations still several old ages off. Drumhead: -aggressive surgical direction basis of intervention for locally advanced kidney malignant neoplastic disease ; neoadjuvant VEGF-targeted intervention may take to enhanced feasibleness of resection in same patients ; stillinvestigational: no effectual adjuvant intervention for kidney malignant neoplastic disease at present.How to Avoid Cemplications While executing Transdermal Nephrolithotomy: — -MARSHALL L.STOLLER, MD. Background: key to success in transdermal nephrolithotomy ( PNL ) is for endourologist to derive appropriate entree ; make non trust on radiotherapist to execute ; appropriate landmarks are 2 i ¬?ngerbreadths sidelong from paraspinous.muscle and 2 finger’s breadths below 12th rib ; 9 in 10 times puncture site in Petit ‘s trigon ; place patient prone with thorax blosters and articulatio genuss flexed ; utilize general. anaesthesia in instance of demand to entree airway ; extradural does non work { excessively hard to change over to general anaesthesia if desperately necessary ) ; radiologists puncture straight up and down, aiming nephritic pelvic girdle, but this does non enable urologist to make transdermal prcedure ; urine return dues non vouch entree to allow calyx. Nephrostomy tube entree: usage echography to assist direct needle ; purpose pelt posteriur calyx ; Technique for lower pole puncture: follow landmarks described above, , purpose for midaxillary line, progress acerate leaf, and draw C- arm toward you ; if needle below intended mark on x-ray, needle non steep plenty ; if needle above intended mark, travel deeper Technique for upper pole puncture: travel C- arm off from you ( indicates deepness and how far to progress acerate leaf ) coni ¬?rming entry: return of piss ; injection of retrograde methylene blue ; transition of i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡oppy tip guidewire ( if needle in anterior calyx, K- wire does non progress beyond calyx into nephritic pelvic girdle ) ; ultrasonographic verification: injection of dilute contrast. Avoiding shed blooding complications: occur as consequence of progressing sheath excessively far ; distend piece of land merely to roll uping system ; go forth sheath somewhat outside roll uping system ; progressing excessively far cracks infundibulum. Other complications: pulsatile bloody outflow, rapid venous drainage into vena cava, fecal matters, air, gall ; inconsequential if recognized before dilation ; merely draw needle out and make another puncture ; make non necessitate to halt instance. Localization: text editions recommend taking for most inferior calyx ; survey of computed imaging ( CT ) from 100 patients showed 42 patients had 2 lower pole calyces and 59 had 3 lower pole calyces ; most median calyx will be anterior 93 % to 95 % of clip ; lower pole entree should be directed to most sidelong calyx ; if entree into posterior calyx non achieved, successful PNL non probably, because angle of anterior confronting calyx excessively short. Dilation: do non come in roll uping system, but attack every bit near as possible to roll uping systern ; rock should non be seeable on initial entry ( should he gt ; 0.25 centimeter beyond ) ; guidewires – guarantee length adequate ; denominate working wires and safety wires: hydrophilic guidewires go in easy but besides fall out easy ; J gt ; tipped guidewires do non punch roll uping system ; safety – urologist should have on lead spectacless to protect eyesfrom radiation and from sprinkling. Tips on technique: puncture easier in patients with history of PNL because kidney fixed ; in PNL-naive patients, kidney moves off from progressing tip { disconnected gesture required ) ; talker uses 18-gauge acerate leafs ( non 25~gauge ) ; uses really small fluoroscopy ; every bit long as wire moves back and Forth, exchange catheter can be advanced ; to minimise radiation, i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡uoroscopy used merely when near roll uping? system ; catheter can be made less stiff by dunking it into microwaved saline or madestiffer by dunking it into ice slush. Amplatz system jobs: misidentify to progress Amplats sheath beyond cone ( likely to do hemorrhage ) ; go forth sheath outside roll uping system ( it will work its manner in during lithotripsy ) ; ldnked Dotter catheter ; fascial dilator unmatched with sheath ; inadequately advanced fascial sheath ; buried sheath in corpulent patients ( place sutura on terminal of sheath to ease retrieval ) ; balloon — – used merely in United provinces ( pneumatic lithoclast used in other states less expensive guarantee equal skin scratch ; as ballon dilates radially, it shortens lorigitudinally Complicating hurts: -bowel — set up separate drainage ( intestine separated from urinary system ) ; dual J and Foley catheters placed ; skin scratch enlarged and penrose drain placed ; patient placed on ternary antibiotics and low-roughage diet ; alert waiting ; bulk of hurts digressive ( non through-and-through ) , so colostomy non necessary ; postprocedural hemorrhagic — find whether due to hemorrhagic or infected daze ; temperature unreliiable ; organic structure temperature should be gt ; 3S % ; temperature of 36A ° to 37A °C indicates possible sepsis ; infective complications — -appropriate antibiotic ; fulminant disease may be related to high endotoxin concentrations: low- force per unit area irrigation system ; hypothermia may confound diagnosing of urosepsis ; ticker for peripheral vasoconstriction bespeaking haemorrhagic daze V peripheral vasodilation bespeaking infected daze ; hurts to next variety meats — lung ( look into post procedural ch est X- beam ) ; incidence of pleural hurts # 12 % ( increases with supracostal puncture ) ; expression for pnettiuothorait or hydrothoralsi ( look for clear cost phrenic Angier on chest X ray ; intervention individualized ; see chest tubing ) ; liver † or spleen hurts ; vascular hurts ; delayed bleeding — in talker ‘s pattern, occurs in 1A °/o of instances ; disconnected brisk shed blooding due to pseudo aneurism ; occurs 6 wk after process ; dainty by ace selective angioembolizatien ( microcoils ) ; hazards include arterial dissection, nontarget embolization, and contrast-induced kidney disease ; highest hazard in diabetics Drain: nephrostomy tubes Council-tip: easy to rewire Endopyelotomy tubing: 14 Gallic to 8 Gallic ; can be hard to put Circle nephrostomy tubing: 2 entree piece of lands ; good for drawn-out drainage ; less likely to be dislodged.Foley balloon catheter: cut tip off ( like Councill catheter ) Pull-string: Cope-like tubings ; turn and draw out at same clip to avoid laceration of infundibulum. Malecot tubing: entrapment can happen in little nephritic pelvic girdle due to strong collagen span that forms through i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡anges of tubing ; tissue must be cut in order to retreat entrapped tubing. Tract closing: tubeless — talker sees no advantage ; with or without dual J catheter ; styptic: agents and i ¬?brin sealers ( eg, FloSeal, Tisseel ) ; may restrict tract bleeding ; preplace occlusion balloon in roll uping system ; cauterant may diminish hemorrhage ; skin closing — better decorative consequence without Skin closing ; nephrostomy tubing — with or without skin suturas ; easy dislodged ; when tubing removed, do certain sutura comes with it ; place more than one nephrostomy tubing if necessary. How to cite Follicular And Mantle Cell Lymphomas Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Human Resources For Global Markets †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Human Resources For Global Markets. Answer: Sourcing Human Resources for global Markets- Staffing, Recruitment and Selection One of the most important tasks of the Human Resource Management (HRM) of any company is the staffing, that is, recruitment and selection. Employees are the key elements of any organization. It is very crucial to have qualified and specialized workers to run the organization successfully. Hence, the HRM is responsible for the staffing in a company and maintaining its quality (Small et al. 2017). The staffing attitude of the international organizations generally follows four different approaches. Those are: Ethnocentric: where Parent Country Nationals (PCN) are favoured to hold the key positions and make strategic decisions. Polycentric: Host Country Nationals (HCN) are responsible to manage the subsidiaries but not often transferred to headquarter positions. Geocentric: It is the most global staffing approach, where ability is favoured over nationality of the employees. For international HRM, geocentric approach is most suitable as the nationality of qualified candidates does not create any barrier for recruitment and selection. Regiocentric: It is the region based approach where ability is preferred but in a given area or region. The qualified employees can move within a designated region (Ployhart and Weekley 2014). Various factors influence the staffing, recruitment and selection process, such as the company structure, international experiences, organizational culture, corporate governance and ethics, extent of international business, contextual factors, such as, type of industry, cultural differences in different regions or countries, other local units, such as, whether the business is a greenfield project, joint ventures, merger or acquisition, or subsidiaries etc. (Ekwoaba, Ikeije and Ufoma 2015). The structure of HRM also plays a major role in the staffing process. Whether the HRM is structured or ad hoc, whether it arranges training and development programs, compensation and incentive structure of the company, and mostly a proper and fair selection process of the HRM influences the employment decision and management of the employees. International assignments are of four types, such as, short term consisting of 3 months; extended, which is up to 1 year, long term that varies from 1 to 5 years, and consists of traditional expatriate projects and lastly, non-standard or emerging projects. These non standard projects include rotational projects, commuters or frequent fliers projects, contractual, and virtual projects. The primary objectives of such international projects are: filling the positional gaps, such as, skill gaps, launching of the new projects and transfer of technologies; managing the development process of the employees through the arrangement of trainings and developmental programs for the employees and helping to build up a corporate values; and developing the organization with control, transferring of knowledge, competencies, practices and procedures (Bjrkman and Welch 2015). In international HRM, the role of expatriates is very important. In the international businesses, an expatriate is the person, who stays in another country to work in that foreign organization. Hence, he is the agent, working for direct control, socialization, building a network or relationships, and for transferring of knowledge. The HRM must be careful while recruiting and selecting an expatriate as that involves various legal and political matters and work permit issues, which, if violated could bring about many legal and ethical issues about business operations. The recruitment of non expatriates and inpatriates are also a crucial task of the HRM. This determines the quality of workforce and quality of production of the organization (Ployhart and Weekley 2014). When the international businesses expand in many countries, the HRM selects some people as inpatriates and expatriates. At the same time, when an international company recruits, it chooses to do more internal recruits than external, as the recruitment of citizens of home or host country reduces risk and secures the capital investments on human resources. It helps in creating global competencies and cultural diversity with strategic performances, and provides career opportunities if the home countries as well as in host countries. The international businesses sometimes send expatriates to emerging locations and that throws up challenges in the form of cultural and quality of life adjustments (Brewster and Hegewisch 2017). The selection decision of the expatriates depends on several factors, such as, technical capability, family requirements, cross-cultural suitability, language proficiency, country and cultural requirements, and finally the MNE requirements. The effectiveness of international projects is also dependent on several elements. It requires an open environment, supportive practices for the new ideas and combinations, flexibility of the expatriates to move freely between different locations of home and host countries, and his knowledge and skills in contributing to the organizations success (Kang and Shen 2013). Hence, the role of HRM in the staffing, recruiting and selecting employees for an international organization is very crucial as it determines the organizational culture of any company and maintaining a good employee relationship that culminates into the production of the company. References Bjrkman, I. and Welch, D., 2015. Framing the field of international human resource management research.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,26(2), pp.136-150. Brewster, C. and Hegewisch, A. eds., 2017.Policy and Practice in European Human Resource Management: The Price Waterhouse Cranfield Survey. Taylor Francis. Ekwoaba, J.O., Ikeije, U.U. and Ufoma, N., 2015. The impact of recruitment and selection criteria on organizational performance.Global Journal of Human Resource Management,3(2), pp.22-23. Kang, H. and Shen, J., 2013. International recruitment and selection practices of South Korean multinationals in China.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,24(17), pp.3325-3342. Ployhart, R.E. and Weekley, J.A., 2014. Recruitment and selection in global organizations.The Routledge companion to international human resource management, pp.155-171. Small, E.E., Doll, J.L., Bergman, S.M. and Heggestad, E.D., 2017. Brown Smith Communication Solutions: A Staffing System Simulation.Management Teaching Review, p.2379298117716673.